Close your eyes and imagine an American Colonial meal. I imagine that you’re seeing roasts, overcooked vegetables, pastries both sweet and savory. But I’ll bet you didn’t think to put a curry dish like butter chicken on your Puritan grandmother’s table. I certainly didn’t, until I received some spices from Pereg to try. I started looking into what spices the 17th and 18th century American colonists might have been using.
Our grandmothers in that period would not have been using these particular spices, however, with the possible exception of Sumac. (I’ll explain below)
How Do We Know What Seasonings Colonists Used?
I remembered reading in the book A Thousand Years Over A Hot Stove a list of recommended foods for the early settlers to take with them on the Atlantic passage. Higginson’s book, New England Plantation published in 1630 included packing hints for survival in the new world. Under spices, Francis Higginson recommended housewives should take Sugar, Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon, Nutmegs and Fruit. (Not sure about that one? Dried fruit, probably.)
In my own family, I have read two wills that shed light on products that housewives considered essential.
Rudolph Manbeck, an ancestor of my husband, wrote a bill in 1794 that sets aside certain property for his wife, including
- half bushel of salt
- 1/4 lb. pepper
- 1/4 lb. allspice
- 1/3 lb. ginger
- 4 gall(on) vinegar
In the inventory of Asahel Platt’s property (he died intestate in 1833) I learned that he must have been a merchant. So what seasonings did he carry in his store? The long inventory includes these items:
- 34 lb. pepper
- 3 lb. spice ( unspecified)
- 7 lb. ginger
- 2 lb. Salt Peter (sic) [used for curing meat]
- 5/16 lb. nut megs
- 1/2 lb. cloves
- 22 lb. raisins
- 1 barrel of salt
Home Grown Herbs and Sumac Berries
Of course these lists focus on those seasonings that need to be imported. Additionally, plenty of herbs were growing just outside the kitchen door.
A Thousand Years Over a Hot Stove reminds us that the spices and herbs are used as much for curing as for cooking. The author lists thistle, borage, peppermint, licorice, rosemary, lavender, sage, anise, fennel, cloves, elder, garlic and ginger and some of the multi-purpose spices and herbs.
Of the seasonings sent to me by Pereg, I thought Sumac might be the most likely to have been used by our Puritan ancestors. After all indigenous people used the red-berried sumac, and our grandmothers learned to use many American Indian foods. If you think of Sumac as poison, don’t worry–that only applies to the white-berried sumac plant. The red berry grows on another plant and is entirely edible.
However, I can find no direct reference to that cross over from American Indians to colonists. Too bad, because although I have never used sumac before I have become a fan. It has such a beautiful color and a nice tangy lemon, almost sweet and sour taste.
Butter Chicken: Colonial Curry
I perked up when I read about the popularity of curried foods in America, even in the mid-17th century. If I want to use sumac in colonial food, curry provides a great opportunity. English housewives had discovered curry early in that century, and anything popular in England carried over into American habits. The most popular cookbook in the late 18th century in American would have been The Art of Cooking Made Plain and Simple by Hannah Glasse.
The clever Ms. Glasse recreated tastes of dishes made with seasonings not yet available in either England or America. Which brings us to her Butter Chicken, a curry dish popular in the 17th and 18th century. Although her version had much simpler seasonings than the “original” Indian dish, as spices became more available, we see an expansion of seasonings in later recipes. Mary Randolph’s The Virginia Housewife, calls for eight spices (ginger, turmeric, coriander, cumin seeds, ginger, nutmeg, mace, cayenne) instead of the three in Glasse’s recipe (ginger turmeric, pepper).
You will notice a lack of curry powder in both–colonial housewives had to be creative rather than use pre-mixed seasonings like curry powder.
I was a bit surprised that turmeric would have been used by the 18th century housewives, but there it is in Glasses’s 1774 book as she makes India pickle and butter chicken.
Check out Silkroad Gourmet for a nice comparison of these two recipes that were published fifty years apart. There you will find the entire recipe as originally published in each of the books.
I started with Hannah Glasse’s curry recipe for Butter Chicken, but spiced it up just a bit. My use of spices in the recipe as written below still could use some pepping up, I think. Let me know what spices you will use in Butter Chicken.