Category Archives: Books

New Look At Ohio History By David McCullough

The American history author, David McCullough hunkered down in Marietta Ohio, on the Ohio River, to write about the lesser-known pioneers who first settled the Northwest Territory.

Pioneers: The Heroic Story of the Settlers Who Brought the American Ideal West

Pioneer Association of Washington County
Meeting of the Pioneer Association in Marietta in 1870. Augustus Stone, one of the sons of my pioneer family, would be here. Photo from Washington County Public Library

Anyone with ancestors in early Ohio will find this book helpful. In fact, it’s way of showing how national events affect individual families could be useful to anyone who wants to understand their ancestors’ lives between 1788 and the early 1800s.

McCullough has chosen to focus on one town–Marietta–and a handful of the leaders who made the settlement possible. General Rufus Putnam, who led fellow veterans of the Revolution westward and meticulously planned the “New England on the Ohio” town takes main stage, of course.

But McCullough also gives mini-biographies of lesser known figures who were essential to the founding of Marietta. Manasseh Cutler, a New England preacher who tirelessly campaigned for federal support of the Northwest settlement and against slavery; his son, Ephraim Cutler who settled in Ohio and held important positions; General Tupper, another Revolutionary War veteran; Joseph Barker, builder responsible for many of the homes on land and boats on the river; and Samuel Hildreth, Physician.

These men are very interesting, however, rather than spend a chapter on the shenanigans of Aaron Burr, and another on a visit by John Quincy Adams, I wish that he had spent more time on the “ordinary” people rather than only on the leaders. Of course it is hard to see ANY of the pioneers who took the chances they took to settle this new land as “ordinary.” As intriguing as Aaron Burr is and as much as I admire John Quincy Adams, their connection to the Northwest Territory was tenuous.

The Challenges

A catalogue of problems faced by the pioneers, makes me wonder if I would have left civilized New England for that unknown territory. We are reminded, however, that after the Revolution, the new country’s economy took a dive and since few of the soldiers ever received pay, the heroes of the Revolution were in serious financial trouble after the war. They believed, with typical American optimism, that the wilderness of Ohio Country promised a rich new life. All they had to do was work hard and the land would reward them.

Although that was the case, first they had to get across the mountains of Pennsylvania on foot or in oxcart, and down the Ohio in flatboats that they built themselves. Then they had to clear forests of trees larger than they had ever seen before, build forts, houses, and stores and churches.

Picketts Point monument to recall the Indian Wars along the Ohio River.
Picketed Point, reminder of the Indian Wars along the Ohio River 1791-1796 Photo by Photo by Richie Diesterheft, Flickr.

Meanwhile, they would be fighting off clouds of gnats. Listening to the wolves and panthers every night in the “howling wilderness,” and waiting for an Indian attack. For the first couple of years, The Ohio Company were ignored by their government in Washington, until a particularly onerous massacre woke up the law makers and George Washington himself stepped in to assure adequate funding and troops to establish a peace with the Indians.

My Family Arrives

1789 brought a harsh winter that killed crops prematurely and a measles outbreak adding to starvation. Next small pox hit the settlement. But in the summer the famine ended and General Putnam went back to Ohio to collect his wife and children and bring them West, along with fifteen other settlers. My 8th cousin, once removed, Israel Stone and his family added a considerable portion of that fifteen.

Benjamin Franklin Stone
Benjamin Franklin Stone

Of course I was disappointed that “my” family didn’t make it into McCullough’s book, particularly since one of the sons, Benjamin Franklin Stone wrote a journal detailing their journey and settlement in Rainbow, up the river from Marietta. McCullough also does not mention Rainbow. Among many interesting tidbits, Benjamin tells with how the family made it through the starvation times–PUMPKINS. Since another son, Sardine Stone held elected office for many years,I thought the family might have warranted mention.

Note: You can read New England Magazine, Vol. 16 1897(starting on page 210) with most of Benjamin Franklin Stone’s Journal in a digital copy on Google Books (FREE).

At the least, it would have been helpful to have a list of the settlers that came in the original caravan and in the later caravans led by Putnam. I doubt anyone could complete a totally accurate list, since McCullough reports that there were new people arriving every day. Naturally some of those people moved farther west after a brief stay, and some gave up and returned to the East.

Basic Principles

The dedication of these early pioneers to certain American principles, makes me proud to be an Ohioan. From the beginning their compacts included wording insisting on fair treatment of the Indians (although they were not totally successful), a ban on slavery and inclusion of all religions. From the very first year, they established schools, even Ohio University at the idealistically named new town of Athens, Ohio got their early attention. And every family in the Ohio Company was required to plant fifty apple trees. Johnny Appleseed was not the alone in carrying the gospel of the apple throughout Ohio.

I came away thinking that these people had both a phenomenal ability to believe in the future, together with some failings to see how things would change. They somehow knew that the towns they established would become cities of great importance, but they overestimated the lasting importance of river trade. Even after the invention of the steam engine and railroads started crisscrossing the country, they were slow to see the change. They wisely built roads much wider than needed by their carts and pedestrians, but of course had no clue that those roads would one day carry motorized vehicles. And flying machines? A fantasy. .

But whatever advances civilization made, those Pioneers were right about one thing–education.

Bent’s Fort, Book Gives A Close-Up View of a Distant Relative

Charles Bent (1799-1847); William Wells Bent(1809-1869); George Bent (1814-1846); Robert Bent (1816-1841).

Wouldn’t it be nice if every ancestor we researched had been investigated by a meticulous scholar, and written about in an exciting and readable book?  Definitely too much to ask for in most cases–but in the case of the Bent brothers and Bent’s Fort, we can read a close-up of their lives in a book.

When I was writing about the Bent family--relatives and descendants of my 7x great-grandmother, Martha Bent How— I made a brief reference to “Charles Bent and his brother.” Charles Bent and his siblings were descendants of Martha’s brother Peter and the sons of a high achiever who went west to St. Louis and became a judge.  As I wrote earlier:

The judge’s son, Charles Bent, served briefly as the first American Governor of the Territory of New Mexico.The National Park Service maintains a fur trading fort Charles Bent and his brother established on the Santa Fe Trail: Old Bent’s Fort.

Bent's Fort

Bent’s Fort

During the Mexican War, the fort served as a base for the troops of American General Kearney. General Kearney  appointed Charles Bent as Governor of New Mexico after the Mexican War. He served from September 1846 until soldiers of the Pueblo uprising killed him in January 1847. (For those keeping track, Charles is the 4x great-grandchild of John Bent through Peter Bent. That makes Charles my 5th Cousin, 4x removed.)

A Closer Look at Distant Relatives

That reference was enough to make me curious to get a look closer at the lives of Charles Bent and that “brother”, which it turns out included three brothers and a sister and the children of all the above.

After reading all about the place, in David Lavender’s book, Bent’s Fort. I also would like to get a close-up view of Bent’s Old Fort.  [Picture from The Boomer Culture.com]The reproduction  that is pictured above now stands as a National Historic site. It’s Colorado location, just north of New Mexico, would fall within the range of a reasonable road trip from my home in Arizona.

Others besides Historian David Lavender have written about the Bent brothers, but none as thoroughly and in such depth.  His book, a close-up not just of the Bent brothers–mainly Charles, William, George, and Robert focuses on the second son, William a bit more than Charles, but only because Charles life was cut short.  We also hear the fascinating stories of Williams half-Cheyenne sons, also named Charles, George and Robert, who to varying degrees “went native” in the bloody post Civil War period when Western Indians fought in their last gasp attempts to retain their land and way of life.

Bent’s Fort and Western History

Charles Bent’s first ventures west of St. Louis coincided with the enormous fur trade when beaver skins drew hunters and trappers–the rough mountain men and canny merchants–into uncharted territory.  Without realizing it, they were preparing the way for an influx of settlers and farmers who would follow the roads they developed and weave through the mountain passes they discovered and radically change the very idea of the United States.

This map shows the history in capsule form.

Soon after Charles started working in the fur trade, he decided to become an independent trader. His younger brother joined him on the westward treks from St. Louis to the territory still ruled by Spain, and called New Mexico.  That territory include most of today’s New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and a little Texas and Kansas, too.  But the traders, including the Bent brothers, were not only dealing with mostly roadless wilderness, and Indians who were hostile one day and wanting to trade the next, but they were also dealing with a foreign government if they proceeded into New Mexico.

William oversaw the building of Bent’s Fort and they settled there with surrounding Indians–mostly Cheyenne–to selling goods. The Bent’s kept expanding their business–Taos, Santa Fe, other trading post/forts, and constantly changing political situations.

Through this book, I learned about a slice of American history in the early 19th century that somehow had escaped me.  As Beavers became extinct and Beaver hats were no longer fashionable, the emphasis switched to buffalo skins.  Methods of transportation shifted from boat to foot and mule, to wagons pulled by mules, to wagons pulled by oxen, and eventually the railroads moved in about the time that the buffaloes disappeared. And Bent’s Fort, under the management of the Bent brothers, adapted to the changes.

The Conclusion for the Bents

The outcome for my relative, Charles Bent, was not so good.  After long years of trying to work fairly with the Indians and the governments of the United States and Mexico, he was made the first Territorial Governor of the newly American New Mexico.   It was a brutal time, medieval in the execution of “justice” and revenge on all sides.A few weeks later, Taos Pueblo men angered that some of their own were imprisoned, attacked Charles’ home in Taos. Although his wife and children escaped, Charles was brutally murdered.

William also had worked so well with Indians that no less than Kit Carson declared him the man who knows the Indians better than anyone.  Nevertheless, the U.S. government dragged its feet on a peaceful settlement with the Indians that William proposed.  The Army had already taken advantage of his good will by camping at the fort without paying rent, and when they proposed buying the fort, he burned it down, moved upstream and built a new, smaller trading home.

William tried to civilize his children, but the book shows that  sending them to St. Louis for their education wound up having little effect on two half-breed young men. His daughter who married a trader, also wound up living with Indians, and the results for the children were devastating.  Except for his son George, who lived to dictate his memories of the stories that came from Bent’s Fort.  Those memories fuel much of the book by Lavender, although he disproves many of the details of George’s family legends.

The Book

Many of the names of traders and soldiers who passed through the Bent territory were familiar to me. You’ve heard of Kit Carson and perhaps of Jedidiah Smith or Jim Bridger and  General Kearney. All these passed through Bent’s Fort from time to time. But that just scratches the surface of the men (mostly men) whose stories we hear.  Perhaps some of your ancestors were there, too?

If you want to learn about the beginning of the Mexican war that finally made the United States an ocean-to ocean country; if you are curious about the lives and wars of the Native Americans in the west; if you had ancestors who joined the great western migration–you will learn much from Bent’s Fort.


For a guide to all the stories I have written about the Bents, go here.

How I Am Related

  • Vera Marie Kaser Badertscher is the daughter of
  • Harriette Anderson Kaser, the daughter of
  • Vera Stout (Anderson),the daughter of
  • Hattie Morgan (Stout), the daughter of
  • Mary Bassett (Morgan),the daughter of
  • Elizabeth Stone (Bassett) the daughter of
  • Elizabeth Howe (Stone), the daughter of
  • Israel Howe, the son of
  • David How, the son of
  • Martha Bent How, the daughter of
  • John Bent, Sr., who is the 4x great-grandfather of Charles, William, Robert and George Bent, sons of Silas Bent (1768-1827)

Malinda Russell: Here’s To the Women Who Wrote Cookbooks

I do want to celebrate Malinda Russell, because she had an incredible life, and was the first black woman to publish a cookbook in America. However, her cook book is definitely not the equal of the others I have reviewed here. Her post-Civil War cookbook(1866), A Domestic Cook Book,  leaves quite a bit to the imagination.

Malinda Russell Cook Book

Malinda Russell’s Domestic Cook Book 1866

*If you come here for the recipes, rather than the history–skip down to Soft Gingerbread.

Soft Gingerbread

Amanda Russell’s soft gingerbread

Malinda Russell’s Life

Her family was set free from the plantation where her grandmother had been enslaved and at nineteen she traveled to Liberia. That did not work out and she returned to work for a family in Virginia, where she married. After four years of marriage, her husband died, leaving her with a crippled child. She moved to Tennessee where she ran a boarding house and later started a pastry shop. She fled Tennessee in 1864 when a gang of guerrilla rebels raided her home and took all her accumulated wealth.

Living in PawPaw Michigan apparently did not suit her. She yearned to return to Tennessee and self-published a cookbook to try to raise money. Shortly after the publication, however, the town of PawPaw burned and no one knows what happened to Malinda.

The lack of specifics in the recipes may be explained by her comment in the introduction that “I cook according to the plan of Mary Randolph (Virginia Housewife)”  Therefore, the cooks using Malinda’s book had better have Randolph’s book at hand as well.

THE CURES

The very short book includes some home cures as well as recipes–in fact mixed in with the recipes, since there are no chapters or headings to separate things.  I found her recipe for Magnetie Oil (apparently not a typo for magnetic, although there are connections) in a book of quack medicine published in 1863 with more details about how to use it.  But would you like to experiment with this formula?  I would not.

Magnetie Oil

one oz chloroform, one do. laudeman, one do. tincture of colchicum, one do. capsicum, half do. castor oil, three do. alcohol.

This formula, which disturbingly comes right after Roast Pig, might confuse you until you figure out that do. stands for ditto. Laudanum is opium. Colchicum, a plant that yields an alternative medicine still used for gout. Capsicum is pepper. Castor oil was commonly used to keep one regular–made from the castor beans, whose hull is the poisonous ricin you may have heard of.

Russell gives no clue as to how if this oil should be rubbed on or swallowed. However, the “Dr.” whose book I discovered on Google Books recommends rubbing it on sore teeth and gums, and on other aches and pains and claims to have cured a stomach ache by having a woman swallow a small amount diluted in water.

The Recipes

soft gingerbread unbaked

soft gingerbread dough cut for baking

Desserts dominate the list of 265 brief recipes.  I decided to try out her recipe for “soft gingerbread”.  Although the word cookie popped up in earlier American cook books, Malinda sticks with the term cake.

Since Malinda mixes recipes for what we think of as pancakes, which are not always a dessert, with the other cakes she bakes, I thought perhaps the cookie evolved slowly from full-sized cake, to smaller cake baked on a sheet instead of in a pan.  That does not take a large leap since many books talk about baking hoops–circles of metal on a flat pan to contain cake batter rather than a pan.

This gingerbread surprised me by changing colors as it baked. Instead of getting darker like most baked goods, these little cakes got lighter, as you can see below.

Soft gingerbread changes color

Soft gingerbread changes color when baked

Today when we say gingerbread we are generally referring to a loaf cake. If we mean cookie–we say cookie.  As for soft–gingerbread evolved from very hard and crispy slabs that were highly decorated starting in the middle ages.  The evolution to “soft” or cake gingerbread happened in America.

soft gingerbread cooling

soft gingerbread cooling

As usual, the Domestic Cook Book gives scant guidance on numerous things that it would be nice to know.  In trying to replicate her soft gingerbread, I believe I got it mostly right, but added too much flour.  Therefore the recipe below (following Amanda Russell’s recipe with my comments) reflects a more reasonable amount.

Malinda Russell’s Recipe for Soft Gingerbread

One quart molasses, one cup sugar, 1/4 pound lard, 3 eggs. [Sounds like a lot of molasses!] Beat sugar and eggs together. [But what about the lard? Since I did not have lard, I used butter.] 1 gill sour milk [1/2 cup. I could have soured milk with vinegar, but I had buttermilk on hand so used that.] 1 tablespoon soda dissolved in warm water. 1 tablespoons of ginger. [That is a lot of ginger compared to other recipes of the time, but I thought it was about right for modern tastes.]  Flour enough to make a soft dough. [Oh boy–how vague can you get?] Knead well, roll and bake in quick oven. [So the soft dough must be at least firm enough to roll. No clue as to how thick to cut the pieces, assuming she is thinking of small round cakes. No clue as to how long to bake.] [Experts vary on what a quick oven is. Probably 375 to 400. I used 375 successfully.

I don’t buy molasses by the barrel, so had to make do with a pint instead of a quart. That amount in the adjusted recipe made a good-sized batch of cakes (more than two dozen).  Here is my recipe.

Soft Gingerbread

Serves 30
Prep time 30 minutes
Cook time 40 minutes
Total time 1 hours, 10 minutes
Allergy Egg, Milk, Wheat
Meal type Dessert
Misc Child Friendly, Freezable, Pre-preparable, Serve Cold
From book A Domestic Cook Book 1866
An 1866 recipe for "soft" gingerbread made into small cakes comes from a very early cookbook, A Domestic Cook Book by Amanda Russell.

Ingredients

  • 1 pint molasses
  • 1/8lb butter (or lard or vegetable shortening)
  • 2 eggs
  • 1/4 cup buttermilk
  • 1/2 tablespoon baking soda
  • 1 tablespoon ground ginger
  • 6 cups flour (51/2 cups in dough, 1/2 C for rolling out.)

Directions

1. Heat oven to 375, Line cookie sheets with parchment paper.
2. Mix molasses and sugar, stir in softened butter.
3. Beat 3 eggs and then beat them into the sugar mixture
4. Add and stir in the milk
5. Add and stir in soda and ginger and three cups of flour.
6. Add flour as needed Mixture will be very sticky. Stir and knead in bowl until the texture will allow it to be rolled out.
7. Flour a sheet of parchment paper on your prep surface and your rolling pin.
8. Roll out the dough to approximately 5/8 inch thick.
9. Cut in shapes you prefer. I used a 3 1/2- inch round biscuit cutter. (Roll the scraps and cut them also.)
10. Transfer individual cakes to baking pans. They do not spread sideways, so you can place them fairly close together.
11. Bake about 12 minutes. Watch to be sure the bottom does not brown too much. A toothpick inserted in the cake will come out clean. The cakes become much lighter in color than the dough.
12. Let cool a few minutes on pan and then transfer to cooling rack. Although Amanda Russell does not mention frosting, I believe that decorative icing would improve the cakes.

Note

This recipe yields a soft cookie that is similar in texture to a pancake. Since the original recipe does not specify the amount of flour, you can experiment to change the end texture of the cookies/cakes.

Be careful not to add too much flour. Even though the dough seems sticky, you can work more flour in as you roll it out. Mine wound up tasty too much of flour.

Other recipes for gingerbread add currants or raisins and that would be a nice addition.

See the other cookbook authors we have celebrated during Women’s History Month.

Hannah Glasse

Amelia Simmons

Mary Randolph

Thanks for reading and Happy Cooking.